Pneumonia, What causes pneumonia? Symptoms of pneumonia…
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung parenchyma characterized by consolidation of the affected part, the alveolar air spaces being filled with exudate, inflammatory cells, and fibrin. Pneumonia is due to infection by bacteria or viruses, inhalation of chemicals, trauma to the cell wall, and at least to fungi, rickettsiae, yeast, and helminths. The distribution of pneumonia may be lobar, segmental, or lobular when lobular and associated with bronchitis, it is called bronchopneumonia.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of lung parenchyma which is associated with a marked increase in interstitial and alveolar fluid.
Causes of Pneumonia:
1: Bacterial Infection
4:Mycoplasma and protozoa in AIDS
Classification of Pneumnonia:
1:Communityy Acquired Pneumonia
It occurs in normal healthy persons
2:Hospital Acquired Pneumonia
It occurs either when immunity is weak or in lung disorders or anatomical abnormal lungs.
Types Of Pneumonia:
Only in one small segmental lobes of lungi
Both side segmental lobes of the lungs are affected
Complete lobe affected.
Patchy-like formation in the lungs.
URI(upper respiratory infection)
AIDS(Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome)
Malnutrition and dehydration
Aspiration of food, fluid, vomitus.
Inhalation of toxic, Chemicals, gases
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Altered consciousness level
Immune suppressive therapy, e.g, Corticosteroid.
Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia:
Increase respiratory rate
Low oxygen saturation
Fever(high in bacterial infection)
Dull sound produce on percussion
Diagnostic Evaluation of Pneumonia:
Sputum for culture and sensitivity
Complications of Pneumonia:
Atelectasis(due to mucous plugs)
Superinfection (pericarditis, meningitis)
Medical Management of Pneumonia:
Prevention of pneumonia by vaccination
Use of antibiotic therapy for treatment e.g,
Bronchodilators are used
Analgesics for chest pain ,e.g,nimuslide, paracetamol.
Nursing management of pneumonia:
We should encourage the patient to take plenty of fluid provide warm liquids.
Provide drugs as prescribed bronchodilators, anticholinergics, leukotriene, antagonists, methylxanthines, and inflammatory.
Provide humidification, room humidifier.
Monitor ABGs pulse oximetry to detect hypoxia.
Provide humidification,(room humidifier)
Monitor ABGs, pulse oximetry to detect hypoxia
Provide fowlers or semi fowler position to expand lung properly and relieve dyspnea.
Assess the color of the mucus membrane or skin to detect cyanosis.
Administer supplemental O2 as indicated.
Maintain adequate hydration and nutrition to improve resistance to disease and reduce the risk of infection.
Administer antimicrobials agents as prescribed.
Nursing Diagnosis of Pneumonia:
- Ineffective airway clearance related to alveolar inflammation, edema formation, sputum production, pleuritic pain.
- Impaired gas exchange related to hypoventilation(altered O2 supply), inflammation of alveoli.
- Risk for infection related to immunosuppression, chronic disease, inadequate ciliary action to defenses.
- Activity intolerance related to hypoxia, or imbalance O2 supply and demands, fatigue.
- Acute pleuritic pain related to inflammatory process in lung parenchyma, chronic and persistent coughing.
- Imbalance nutrition less than body requirements related to anorexia, sputum production, fever, bronchodilators treatment, odor, and taste of sputum.
- Risk for deficient fluid volume related to increased fluid loss due to fever diaphoresis, mouth breathing.
- Deficient knowledge related to a disease condition.
- Ineffective breathing pattern related to decreasing lung expansion (fluid accumulation lungs) and inflammatory process.
- Anxiety-related to disease.
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